Components and their properties:
- Air gaps are used especially in medium voltage distribution lines. They can handle very high surge currents, without very precise voltage limitation.
- Gas discharge tubes (GDT) can tame fairly high surge currents, but are relatively slow to trigger.
- Metal oxide varistors (MOV) are suitable for medium to high surges and quite fast, but do not limit the voltage very precisely.
- Transient-voltage-suppressor (TVS) diodes can take only small surge currents, but have an accurate clamp voltage and are very fast.